Both manual and automatic transmissions are generally trouble-free, but there are times when problems arise. Transmission issues manifest themselves in different ways, so it’s important that vehicle owners monitor how their vehicle’s transmission is operating. While there are many potential issues that require transmission repair, there are three common ones that should never be ignored.
Any transmission, whether manual or automatic, should not leak. That means if there are any signs of a leak developing, it’s important to deal with the issue quickly. This will prevent damage to the transmission’s internal components. Seal leaks are generally the cause of fluid leaks and are one of the easier issues to deal with. Although the labor for replacing some seals can be quite high, it’s always lower than having to replace a transmission that fails because of that leak. Leaky Transmission issues should never be ignored.
Transmissions Should Never Slip
Slipping Gears always indicate some sort of problem. That means when transmissions don’t engage quickly when shifted into gear or shifts between gear are not precise. It’s time to have the vehicle looked at by a transmission specialist. Letting a problem go unattended is not recommended, as additional damage can occur when problems are not promptly dealt with.
Don’t Ignore Warning Lights
That Check Engine Light is there for a reason. In most cases, the light will come on to let the driver know there is some sort of an engine-related problem, but there are also times when the light indicates a transmission issue. Industry experts always recommend drivers take steps to determine why the light is on. Diagnostic equipment will quickly isolate the source of the issue, so it pays to visit a qualified technician when the check engine light comes on. Quickly identifying an issue and dealing with it often saves money.
No one wants to be stranded by the side of the road, and responding to any changes in the way your transmission behaves normally helps to prevent breakdowns. Maintenance is also important, so discuss your driving habits with a transmission expert to determine what care your vehicle needs. If any changes in a vehicle’s performance are noted, it’s always time to ask an expert for advice.
Arguments related to Manual vs. Automatic Towing have raged for years, with proponents on both sides touting the advantages of their preferred transmission. Anyone considering towing with any vehicle should carefully consider a variety of factors that contribute to the argument. Once all the factors are considered, your choice may be clear. Or, maybe it won’t.
Manual Shifting Has Advantages
There are a great many people who steadfastly believe Manual Towing allows drivers to have better control, especially during poor weather or when driving over rough terrain. In fact, there is some truth to those claims, as carefully selecting gears can control speeds effectively on steep inclines. However, it’s important to recognize the fact newer vehicles now incorporate safety devices to assist automatic transmission users on all types of terrain and during inclement weather.
Automatic Transmissions are Easier to Drive
The number of drivers who are truly proficient at using a standard transmission is rapidly declining. Even Jeep has reportedly considered dropping manual transmission options from its Wrangler lineup in favor of automatic transmissions. Automatic Towing does eliminate the need for drivers to focus on which gear they’re in, though, which does, in fact, make it easier to stay aware of other conditions when towing.
Towing any trailer without fully understanding the importance of the trailer’s weight can cause many problems. Here, automatic transmissions often have the edge. The towing capacities as rated by manufacturers tend to be lower for vehicles with manual transmissions. Every vehicle’s towing rate is readily available, and it pays to check that rating before towing anything. Some engine/transmission options, especially with smaller vehicles, are not intended to pull any heavy loads. If you’ve got any questions about the ratings for your specific vehicle, contact an expert. That will determine what, if any, towing is advised.
Hauling that boat to the lake or pulling a utility trailer loaded with home improvement supplies is not a problem for most light trucks, SUVs, or even larger cars. However, safety should always be a top priority when towing any type of trailer. The argument over which type of transmission is best can be an issue, but both options will work when the driver is comfortable with the driving situation.
Determining what problem(s) your car has may seem like an impossible task. Especially to the untrained eyes and ears of the average driver. It may be helpful to think of your car’s inner workings as similar to that of the human body. For instance, if you have chest pain that could point toward any number of health issues. But if the chest pain exists in addition to difficulty breathing, then it is much more likely that asthma (or something very similar) is the cause. Automotive problems are diagnosed in a similar manner. Problems that involve mechanical systems typically exhibit distinct sensations and sounds. These act as indicators that a certain process isn’t working the way it is intended to. As soon as you recognize that something seems a bit “off” with your vehicle’s functionality, it is time to assess the issue and look for a way to fix it.
Diagnosing car problems yourself may seem like an impossible task. Try to think of it in terms of your own body. For instance, if your stomach begins to hurt without warning, you’ll probably start thinking of the last thing you ate in order to figure out why you’re having the pain. A similar type of thinking goes into diagnosing car trouble. The moment you start noticing something out of the ordinary, it’s time to start considering the problem and finding a way to fix it.
Your car’s transmission is a complex mechanical system that controls the application of power from the engine to the driveshaft. It experiences more wear and tear over time than most other parts of your vehicle due to the heat and friction produced by their many moving and interacting components. Major issues are bound to arise if your transmission is not well maintained and/or symptoms of a problem are not checked by a professional soon after they develop.
Transmission repairs or replacements are inconvenient, stressful and typically quite expensive, so it’s a good idea to pay attention to any activity that seems unusual. Adhering to the recommended maintenance procedures and schedule intended to prevent problems will help your transmission last longer, perform better and require fewer repairs over its lifespan. That said, if you’re having some car trouble, it is important to know what the most common types of transmission problems are so that you can easily diagnose them and get them fixed. Here is a list of 10 symptoms of transmission trouble and what signs you should look for.
Lack of Response
Ever notice that while driving that the car hesitates or refuses to go into gear? If you have, then there is definitely something wrong. The moment a driver shifts from park to drive the car should immediately go into the proper gear. For automatic transmissions, you might notice that when shifting into drive or park that there is a delay before you feel the gear engage. This is usually a transmission-based concern. Manual transmissions can have the same lacking response issue, but after shifting into gear the engine’s RPMs will surge, but the car won’t move as fast as the engine sounds like it’s going. This is usually caused by a clutch that needs to be replaced, but may sometimes point to a more severe problem.
Whining, Clunking and Humming
It’s impossible to say exactly what your car will sound like when there is trouble with your transmission, but one thing is for sure, you’ll get an “I haven’t heard that sound before” feeling when you notice it. The sounds that are produced vary widely between different makes and models, but the best way to describe them is that you’ll probably hear a humming, buzzing or whining noise.
Manual transmissions will emit sounds that can be described as being slightly more mechanical, louder and abrupt sounding. A clunking sounds when you shift gears almost always lies within a transmission, while constant velocity joins or the differential may be the source if the clunking is coming from the underside of your car.
As mentioned already, it is always best to get the problem diagnosed and repaired as soon as possible and not wait until later when you “find the time” or “have the money”. If you wait until later what would have been a relatively inexpensive repair can easily become a much more costly one.
A leak is probably the most recognizable symptom and should be repaired as soon as possible. Letting the fluid leak is one of the most common causes transmission break down. Automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is the life-blood of a transmission as it lubricates, cleans and conditions the seals and acts as hydraulic fluid. Without it (or even if it gets too low), the engine will seize up and stop working completely.
ATF is bright red in color, clear and smells somewhat sweet if everything is working correctly. If this is what you find on your driveway, then all that needs to be fixed is the hole. If the fluid is dark and/or has a burnt smell then it’s time to get the fluid changed or flushed and repairs might be required. To check if you’re running low on fluid, take your car for a short drive to warm it up and then lift the hood and read the dipstick (be sure the vehicle is on level ground).
Unlike motor oil, transmission fluid is not burned off or consumed by a car so if the level is low then there is a leak somewhere that must be patched. It is recommended to top up the fluid anyway even if the leak still exists to make sure there is enough fluid for the transmission to function properly until you get it fixed.
To check the fluid level for a manual transmission, you must check at the transmission case (usually through the fill plug) – not with a dipstick under the hood.
Grinding or Shaking
A car is supposed to run smoothly and without any shaking, or jerking, and there is not supposed to be any grinding sounds. These all suggest that there is a problem with the gears. Manual transmissions commonly indicate problems by making a grinding noise or feeling when you shift into a gear. If the grinding occurs after engaging the clutch and shifting, this can be sign that the clutch may need to be replaced or adjusted. That said, it can also point towards several other issues including damaged or worn out gear synchronizes.
Automatic transmissions act a little differently. Instead of making a grinding noise, you will likely feel it take some time to wiggle into gear at first instead of the typical smooth transitions. As the problem gets worse, the transitions into the next gear become more jarring and involve more shaking. There are a few other reasons for grinding or shaking, but the appropriate course of action is still to have it inspected and serviced.
Any burning smell coming from your car is a cause for concern. Overheating transmission fluid is one of the causes of a burning smell. Transmission fluid helps keep the parts lubricated and cooled so that they don’t get worn out and damaged. If the fluid breaks down, the system runs too hot. This results in increased friction and corrosive activity as well as the build-up of additional sludge and debris. If this is not taken care of, the transmission will eventually damage itself enough to break down completely. The end result is an expensive replacement. Common causes include low fluid level or using the incorrect brand/type of fluid. To check for these, see the instructions in the section on Low/Leaking Fluid above.
Refuses to Go Into Gear
If the car will not shift after engaging the clutch and trying to move the stick, take a look at the fluid to make sure that it is at the right level. Other causes include using the incorrect thickness (type) of fluid and the clutch linkage or shift cables needing adjustment. The source of the problem could also be the vehicle’s computer system. If you’ve already inspected the fluid, you can try resetting it. To do this, detach the battery and let it stand for thirty minutes. Then, reattach and allow the system to reset itself. This usually takes around thirty minutes. If this doesn’t work either, then it’s time to take it to a mechanic.
Check Engine Light
The check engine light located on your car’s dashboard is a great early indicator that something is about to go wrong (or already has) with your car, and in particular with your transmission. While the light turns on for a number of reasons other than transmission issues, it very important not to ignore this helpful warning sign. There are sensors placed in many areas of a car’s engine that alert the computer if it senses unusual activity. Things coming from a particular process. The sensors on a transmission can pick up on the slightest jerks and vibrations.
Take the vehicle in and have it inspected. They can take a look and immediately tell what is happening through the use of similar diagnostic tools. If you’d like to diagnose the problem yourself (and possibly save yourself a trip to the mechanic’s) you can buy a diagnostic scan tool. It would be plugged into the instrument panel on the driver’s side. It then returns a code that corresponds to the part that needs attention. Whatever you do, do not assume that the check engine light can wait because it might be warning you of a serious problem in the near future.
Transmission Noisy in Neutral
Luckily, a transmission that is noisy (goes “bump”) when it is in neutral could have an inexpensive, simple solution such as adding some fluid or changing it. This could do the trick, as it does for several other issues on this list. If that doesn’t work, the transmission may require professional attention to replace worn out parts, most commonly the bearings, worn gear teeth or the reverse idler gear.
A transmission stays in a designated gear until a shift is performed by the driver (manual) or the computer (automatic). If the transmission is spontaneously slipping in an out of gear (or simply popping into neutral) while driving, I don’t need to tell you that this is a serious safety risk. When you need to step on the gas to avoid a dangerous situation, you need power delivered to the wheels, end of story. The cause can be the link that holds the gears is worn or broken. Get your car inspected and repaired as soon as possible.
A dragging clutch describes the symptom experienced by manual transmissions that involves the clutch disk failing to disengage the flywheel when the clutch pedal is pressed. The clutch is still spinning with the engine which makes it anywhere from difficult to impossible to change gears. This difficulty is accompanied by a grinding noise each time you try to change gears. Fortunately, this problem is considerably less expensive to repair than many other issues. More often than not, the cause of this is too much slack in the clutch pedal. With too much slack available, the linkage between the clutch disk and pedal can’t pull the clutch disk away from the flywheel.
It is important to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for your car. Many times major expensive repairs can be avoided if the vehicle is properly maintained. This is especially true if you notice something unusual. The car should be taken in immediately for service. Brushing up on your knowledge of transmissions (at least the basics) is highly recommended. It can help you save money by avoiding costly inspections. Doing simple procedures such as changing transmission fluid can help you avoid being over-repaired, over charged or simply ripped off.
Get a Diagnosis
Source: Transmission Repair Cost Guide
Many workshops need different types of manual and automatic transmissions in order to better serve their customers. However, if you don’t have the capabilities to build a transmission from scratch, we can help you out. At Trans Works Transmissions, we have been building and selling transmissions at wholesale prices since 1981. When the company was first formed, we were a small business that only wanted to build and sell quality transmissions at the most affordable prices. Today, we always have at least 100 transmissions (both automatic and manual), just waiting to be dispatched.
Our wholesale transmission services are designed for workshop owners and auto mechanics who want a good quality transmission at a relatively affordable price. If you are looking to buy several transmissions in bulk, we guarantee that you will get the best price from us. Here are a few reasons why you should consider using our wholesale transmission service if you want to buy several transmissions at once.
Cheaper Than Most
Rather than buying a brand new transmission or procuring transmissions from elsewhere, our prices are so affordable because we rebuild transmissions from scratch. We only use recycled and old components in order to rebuild the transmission. We understand most people are worried about the reliability and performance of a rebuilt transmission. However, having been in this business for more than three decades, we are confident enough to guarantee that the transmission will run as reliably as a new one. If you are looking for several used transmissions at affordable prices, contact us today and we’ll see what we can do for you!
A Name You Can Trust
We understand that reputation plays a very important role in the auto industry. For over three decades, we have served the area between Green Bay and Janesville. Over the years, we have created a name for the company that’s synonymous with quality, reliability, and assurance. If you have a problem related to your car’s transmission, we will be there to solve it. We have built a reputation in the industry for providing quality transmission repair and rebuilding services at the most affordable prices.
We have also built our own website that you can use to get in touch with us. If you have a query, would like a quote, or want to visit our shop for more information, we are always willing to help you out! Check out our website and find out about what we can do for you! We take customer satisfaction very seriously, and we are always ready to go the extra mile to help our customers out!
Having started our business back in 1981, Trans Works Transmissions was created with one purpose: to serve our customers and offer the highest quality of service. We currently serve the area between Janesville and Green Bay, offering a wide range of transmissions repair and installation services. If your car’s transmission is choking up and in need of a repair, bring it to us and we’ll fix it for you!
We also offer a wide range of rebuild transmissions for sale. Most customers that approach us often have doubts when deciding between buying rebuild transmissions and opting for a new one. However, we can assure you that rebuilt transmissions are just as good as new ones. Here are a few reasons why you should seriously consider buying rebuilt transmissions from us.
Many customers that approach us want a high-quality transmission at an affordable price. Rather than buying a new one, you should check out our rebuild transmissions for sale. We build the transmissions from scratch and sell them at significantly lower prices. In fact, the price of a rebuilt transmission is a fraction of what you would pay for a whole new transmission. The only difference is that the transmission is built using old, used parts. If you want to save money, we would definitely recommend buying a rebuilt transmission.
Another major reason why so many people prefer checking out our rebuild transmissions for sale is because they are environmentally friendly. When we rebuild a transmission, we only use recycled components and parts. On the other hand, brand new transmissions are made using different metals, and a significant amount of energy is expended during the manufacturing process. If you want to make sure that your vehicle remains environmentally friendly, you should seriously consider buying a rebuilt transmission for your car.
One of the biggest questions that many people have about rebuilt transmissions is whether they are as reliable as new ones. However, having spent decades in this industry, we are confident when we say that rebuilt transmissions are just as reliable as new ones. When you buy a rebuilt transmission from us, you can drive your car with confidence that it will run as good as new.
We guarantee that you will be very pleased with the quality of service that we have to offer! Contact us today or bring your car around to our workshop for a checkup. We can guide you throughout the transmission replacement process, and can even deliver the transmission straight to your doorstep.
The automatic transmission is the most popular type of transmission used in cars across America today. The manual transmission has become pretty rare in most parts of the USA, simply because the automatic one offers much more comfort and ease while driving. However, if the automatic tranny stops working properly, you will be unable to drive your car properly. In many cases, the automatic tranny may require a complete replacement.
It’s common knowledge that most transmissions are generally quite expensive. Companies that sell transmissions charge exorbitant prices for new ones. That’s because transmissions are generally made using precious metals, and the manufacturing process is incredibly complex. Rather than go through the hassle of buying a brand new automatic transmission, we recommend that you buy a rebuilt transmission. There are many reasons why you should consider buying a rebuilt transmission from us. Here are a few.
At Trans Works Transmissions, we believe in helping customers buy the most affordable product based on their requirements. If you are interested in buying a transmission for your car, a rebuilt transmission is a great option because it costs so much less. In fact, rebuilt transmissions are significantly more affordable than new transmissions.
Most people who buy rebuilt transmissions generally have questions about their reliability. After all, if you are buying a transmission that’s so low-priced, how can it deliver the same performance? The difference with rebuilt transmissions is just that we use recycled components in order to build the transmission. Having been in business for more than three decades now, we have been built and sold thousands of transmissions to satisfied customers. Since we only use certified, recycled components, we can guarantee that the transmission will be as reliable as a new one. You don’t need to spend thousands of dollars on buying a new transmission, when you can easily get a rebuilt one for less.
More and more people are now concerned about the environment. The green movement has made many people concerned about the emissions from their cars, and more people are now aware of how environmentally harmful their cars can be. At Trans Works Transmissions, we play our part in protecting the environment by only using recycled components to rebuild any manual or automatic transmission. A number of new metals are used in the manufacture of new transmissions and a lot of energy is expended in the process as well. If you really want to contribute to the environment and play your part in saving the earth, getting a rebuild transmission installed is just a small way to contribute to the green movement. Contact us today for a quote!
When your transmission goes out on you depends on a variety of factors: how well the vehicle has been maintained, the make and model of the vehicle, and the number of miles that have been put on your car. We at Trans Work Transmissions are experts in manual transmission repair, and have seen transmissions of every condition drive in through our service doors. If you are not sure whether or not your transmission may be due for a repair, these are a few of most common signs to be on the lookout for.
Reddish Drips and Leaks
It is not uncommon to have clear drips beneath your vehicle once you have parked it in your driveway or in the garage. But if you see reddish stains on your cement, you see transmission fluid. If your transmission loses too much fluid, then it will not be properly lubricated, and parts within the transmission will begin to grind and become worn down.
If caught fast enough, one of our experts may be able to simply repair your transmission rather than completely replace it. The key is to act fast and to tackle these problems early. Our expert mechanics at Trans Work Transmissions can save you hundreds, if not possibly thousands, of dollars.
Your Engine Is Clanging When Stopped at Stop Lights
If you find that your engine is making loud clanging or banging noises when you are idling your vehicle, it is very likely that your transmission parts are becoming loose. The noise is likely the result of loose clutch parts and gears that are now banging against one another as the engine churns over and causes vibrations.
Your Clutch Is Acting Up
The manual transmission clutch is arguably the most abused part of every manual vehicle. Your transmission is constantly under pressure. Since it’s in charge of both engaging and disengaging your engine gears as you change speeds, your transmission has to act fast and keep up with your demands.
You will be able to tell that your clutch is starting to give out on you in one of three ways:
a) Your vehicle is no longer able to stay in gear
b) Your vehicle is no longer able to engage higher gears (typically the fourth or fifth gear)
c) You are having difficulty or are completely unable to shift gears
In some instances, a full replacement may be necessary, in which case our shop will be able to provide you with a custom built manual transmission. But there may be situations in which your transmission can be “saved” and repaired. Bring your vehicle to our shop on County Road CX in Portage, Wisconsin and we will diagnose the issue free of charge.
Since our transmission repair company opened up shop in 1981, we at Trans Work Transmissions have been happy to provide our customers with cost-effective solutions to their transmission woes. Replacing or repairing a transmission is often one of the most dreaded repairs a car owner will face, because it can be expensive. But we are able to save you money by replacing your transmission with a wholesale transmission, as well as provide other valuable (and free!) services.
Why Choose a Wholesale Transmission?
Buying a brand new transmission is not cheap, but we at Trans Work Transmissions are able to obtain top-of-the-line transmissions for vehicles of nearly every make and model at rock bottom prices because we purchase wholesale transmissions. By buying a wholesale transmission for your car, we can save you 30% or more on the cost of parts.
Not every transmission shop may be able to purchase wholesale, because they do not have the same connections which we have worked on establishing during our nearly 35 years in business. Others may not be able to purchase wholesale because they do not offer customized rebuilds. We are proud to offer in-house custom rebuilt transmission services so that the transmission that goes into your vehicle will be the most effective and efficient for its needs.
Other Money Saving Tips When Shopping For a New Transmission
For most drivers, when the tranny of a vehicle goes, it is completely unexpected and can leave drivers scrambling to gather the funds necessary for repairs. But before you panic, we encourage you to bring your vehicle to us here at Trans Work Transmissions for the following reason:
- We offer free estimates. Analyzing and figuring out what may be affecting the performance of your vehicle can be lengthy, and our technicians like to take their time to make sure that the problem is accurately diagnosed. After taking so much time analyzing the issue, we like to also provide our customers with a detailed report of all of the issues affecting their vehicle, as well as an estimate for labor and parts. You are then free to shop around and obtain second, third, or even fourth opinions from other transmission repair shops in the area.
There is a good chance that at some point in your vehicle’s life, it will need its transmission replaced or repaired. We at Trans Work Transmissions have been providing transmission repairs and replacements since 1981. Back then, all our transmission work was performed in our small and cozy garage. Fast forward over three decades later, and we are now able to provide our customers with superior service in our 9,000 square foot facility.
Our company did not grow to become one of the top transmission shops in the Greater Columbia County, Wisconsin area overnight. Below are the characteristics that have helped us and other top-of-the-line transmission repair and replacement providers across this country become amongst the most trustworthy and relied upon.
Free Transmission Diagnosis Services
In order for one of our expert mechanics to determine the critical issues affecting the performance of your vehicle, they will need to first diagnose the problem through a variety of different methods. We typically do this in one of two ways:
- Free road tests (if possible)
- Free diagnostic services using cutting-edge scanning devices
- Trans Work Transmissions provides this service for free so that we can deliver a detailed report on what is wrong with your vehicle and what will need to be fixed. We will then give you a free estimate. When armed with such information, our customers can then make the best decision regarding their vehicle without having to take on any needless additional expenses.
In-House Custom Rebuilt Transmissions
Brand new transmissions do not work as a stand-alone product. In order to get the most out of your transmission and to ensure that it works with your specific vehicle, the transmission repair and replacement company should offer custom rebuilt transmissions.
We at Trans Work Transmissions have a team of highly skilled technicians who dedicate much of their time to rebuilding transmissions. They make sure that they understand how your vehicle’s transmission works, and can then tailor the transmission to accommodate the needs of your car.
Certified and Belongs to Industry-Related Associations
Finding a reputable transmission repair and replacement shop here in the Greater Columbia County area is no easy feat. But one of the key items you should be looking for is the company’s certifications. Apart from checking references, this is the best assurance that your vehicle will receive the best care possible. Our company is proud to hold certifications from the Automotive Service Excellence and the Automatic Transmission Service Group, and we encourage anyone with a transmission issue to only deal with companies with such certifications.
Another item to keep in mind is the associations the shop belongs to. Trans Work Transmissions is a member of the Automatic Transmission Rebuilders Association and the Automatic Transmission Service Group. We are also an authorized distributor of the notable Certified Transmission.
The rebuild transmission process is an intensive one that takes a great deal of time and expertise to complete effectively. While the amount of time and difficulty level will vary depending on a variety of factors, it is essential that you work with an experienced mechanic that understands the process and can ensure a reliable final product.
With prices ranging from $1,000-$6,000 for rebuilding a transmission, you simply cannot afford to make the wrong decision about the technician that you decide to go with. Let’s take a look at a few things that you should look for when choosing a mechanic to rebuild your transmission:
Track Record of Reliability
While you can certainly save money in the short term by going with a less experienced mechanic, the risks involved over the long term are simply not worth it. Focusing your search on finding a mechanic that has 10+ years of experience and a track record of reliability will ensure that your investment does not go to waste. After all, the last thing you want to deal with is a bill for $3,000 and a transmission that still does not work.
Willingness to Test Your Rebuilt Transmission
One of the things that you will want to make sure of when choosing a mechanic is that you, or the technician, will be able to test the transmission to make sure that everything is running smoothly. If a mechanic does not do this you should, at the very least, make sure they offer some type of warranty for the rebuild transmission process.
Experience Handling Your Specific Type of Vehicle
While most transmissions are very similar, there can also be several differences depending on the make, model, and year of your vehicle. Before choosing a mechanic, you want to be sure that you ask questions about their experience with your specific type of vehicle.
The Final Word
Overall, choosing the right mechanic to rebuild your transmission involves doing the necessary research to ensure you are getting a reliable result. It is almost never a good idea to make price the main factor in your decision since the long term effects of a poorly rebuilt transmission can provide significant costs down the road. Experienced mechanics like Trans Works are solid options because of their track record for reliability and willingness to provide a satisfaction guarantee.
Trans Works is a transmission expert located in Portage, WI that specializes in the rebuild transmission process. Get in contact with them to receive a quote for their services.